This course covers the fundamental study material required to understand how databases

(Especially relational ones, such as Access, MySQL, and Oracle) work. The course also delves into explaining how to write SQL queries, and covers the various issues that need to be addressed in designing database systems, implementing them, and using them. Material covered includes enterprise data modeling using Entity Relationship Diagrams, deriving a relational model implementation from Entity Relationship Diagrams, Relational Algebra, SQL as a Data Definition Language and as a Data Manipulation Language, maintaining integrity of a database  system, normalization (normal forms), physical design and query optimization, recovery and concurrency, on-line analytical processing, data warehouses, object relational databases, and unstructured databases. As part of the course, students will use airstream commercial software (e.g., CA Erwin, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server) and will work on practical exercises and projects.